Agritech is a combination of two pre-defined words which has their own valuable meaning in their respective fields. The word Agri stands for agriculture which completely describes the phenomenon of art that conveys the culture as cultivation of crops, harvesting & rearing livestock, science or practice of growing multiple plants for the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, herbs, flowers, etc. that shows the direct usage of our natural resources.
On the other hand, the word Tech stands for technology that describes the use of the creative human idea to solve various problems related to complete different types of tasks.
Additionally, Agritech describes how technology is now useful in the vast field of agriculture development to emphasize the effective use of a profitable return. Its main objective is to monitor different information for the cultivation of crops, analyses about the field of harvesting, climatic weather, land soil as well as air temperature which is a beneficiary tool to apply while farming.
After knowing what Agritech means; people are ready to take risks and want to be a part of the new way of cultivation. Let us describe multiple facts about Starting Agritech Startups in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh from Scratch.
Starting an afresh agriculture startup needs multiple ideas to research because farming needs a lot of stuff, not just a creative idea and financial support.
Various methods of Starting Agritech Startups in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh from Scratch
Study of Geographical Region
Before starting a fresh startup, people should go through the description of states like Bihar is one of the strongest states of India with a geographical area of 94163 sq km, the capital city is Patna, here originated state languages are used like Bhojpuri, Hindi, Urdu & English. Bihar has the benefit of a unique market location, approximately the advantage of a large market of Northern India and Eastern India; commonly states are Haldia and Kolkata for accusing their ports. This state is a part of the eastern region of India, shares borders with the east region in West Bengal, the west region in Uttar Pradesh, the north region in Nepal, and the south region in Jharkhand.
Uttar Pradesh is the fourth, widely and populated state of India, located in the northern central region of India which has a geographical area of 243290 sq km, its capital city is Lucknow “The city of Tehzeeb and Nawabs” that is proudly described as a region of Awadh in the history. Here the originating state languages are Hindi, Urdu & Awadhi.
Uttar Pradesh is attached to the border of the north-west region in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the west region in Haryana and Delhi, the south-west region in Rajasthan, east in Bihar, and south in Madhya Pradesh.
It defines the technique of cropping various major crops under consideration into a base crop which is determined in geographical terms by climate, temperature, rainfall, type of soil, and technology used. The dynamic concept defines the changes in space and time frequently. Bihar is the largest state, rich in biodiversity which has the third-widely production of different vegetables like – onions, potato, brinjal, cauliflower, lady-finger, cabbage, carrot, radish, beat, etc. and the fourth-largest producer of different fruits like litchi, guava, etc.
It is differentiated into two seasons of crops, i.e., Rabi season and Kharif season. Production is started from the second last week of May and for the end of October (Kharif season) and later followed by the rabi season.
Uttar Pradesh has soil that is under the Agro-climatic area rich in alluvial soils called Khaddar (highly rich in alluvium) and Henger (rich in old alluvium).
According to Kharif season, soils are highly organic in nature as loamy soils which generate common crops like rice, pigeon pea, moong beans, maize, etc. In the Rabi season, soils are rich in the moisture of residual soil that can produce wheat, Bengal gram, pea, lentil, sesame seeds, and many more.
All this geographical and agricultural aspect helps one to have basic research about the regions and land that is provided in these states. Now, we should focus on the basic equipment and essentials which will help to build a startup in the states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Now for the startup to plan their ideas for productivity in this large field of market. One’s main aspect is to give a sight on the irrigation process.
There is no difference between the irrigation system of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; it is just a matter of availability for the type of irrigation at the desired place. Let’s get started with the type of irrigation systems available-:
Tube well and Well Irrigation
The availability of wells is mainly found in UP and Bihar in the form of artesian wells, tube wells, deep wells, shallow wells, etc. The shallow well is mostly not selected due to high temperature during the summers which dries up the shallow well very soon. Therefore, deep wells are more reliable for irrigation which provides the availability of water throughout the year.
- Merits: Well irrigation is an independent, simplest, and cheapest irrigation method. The well water provides sulfate, chloride, nitrate, etc. to the fertility of the soil, and well irrigation is also reliable during the period of droughts.
- Demerits: You can only dig at a specific location and during the droughts, the water level may fall drastically. Tubewells make the ground unfit and dry for agriculture and affect the neighbouring areas also.
Canal Irrigation is mainly possible in the northern plains of India which means you can avail of this facility only if you are choosing Agritech in Uttar Pradesh and not in Bihar. You can expect Canal Irrigation where the area is under low-level relief, an extensive command area, a perennial source of water, and deep fertile soil.
There are two types of the canal; firstly the Perennial Canals, which are constructed by creating a barrage across the perennial river, and therefore, most of the Indian canals are perennial. Secondly, the Inundation Canals, which are constructed without any proper system like – electricity, pattern, scope, etc. therefore, these types of the canal you can expect water during the rainy season only and they can be flooded also.
- Merits: Mostly the canals are perennial canals, and you will get the supply of water whenever needed and also saves the crops from drought conditions.
- Demerits: It is considered the best only for the plain areas, and can overflow during the rainy season.
Tank irrigation is like storing water in huge tubs. You need to build small storage with the uses of stones or rocks near a streamline.
- Merits: It does not require much investment and provides usability for years and alongside fishing can be carried out as a source of food and extra income.
- Demerits: Water dries up during the dry season and you have to carry water from the tank to the fields which are very exhausting.
As the name suggests, dripping of water at 2 to 20 litres at every hour is done below or on the soil surface which helps to maintain the moisture of the soil at the optimum level. Drip irrigation is considered the most efficient and can be used with a large variety of crops like – vegetables, flowers, orchard crops, and plantation crops.
- Merits: The merits are as follows-: lesser soil erosion and weed growth, water are efficiently used, recycled water can be used, levelling of fields is not required, leaching is reduced, and nutrient loss is reduced.
- Demerits: are as follows-: wastage of harvest/time/water, water pipe clogging, and installation cost can be higher.
Water is sprayed in the fields to recreate the scenario of rainfall and to obtain this spray you need to create small nozzles or orifices, after this, you have to supply high-pressure water flow in the pipes. Most of the crops like – dry crops, coffee, plantation crops like tea, orchards, flowering crops, and vegetables are suitable for sprinkler irrigation, except the crops like – paddy, jute, etc.
- Merits: are as follows-: saves water, the yield is increased, occupies less space for installation, and is suitable for all types of soil excluding heavy clay.
- Demerits: Installation is costlier.
The state of Bihar consists of 3 different seasons, the Winters season which lies between December to February, the Summer season which lies between March to May, and the Rainy Season which lies between June to September. The southwest monsoon rainfall is expected to happen between June to September and the retreating monsoon occurs between October to November.
Know More: Climate of Bihar. Whereas in Uttar Pradesh subtropical weather changes very significantly. It depends upon the elevation and the average temperature varies from 12.5-17.5 °C during January and 27.5-32.5 °C during May and June; rainfall ranges from 1000-2000 mm in the east and 600-1000 mm in the west. Altogether this results in 90% rainfall occurring during the southwest monsoon.
Know More: Climate of Uttar Pradesh
Overview of Bihar and UP Agritech
- Bihar is the highest contributor to flowers, spices, vegetables, fruits, and food grains.
- Production can be increased 2 to 3 times by adopting advanced farming technologies.
- A very rare case of drought occurs which means you will not run out of water supply.
- For the best results, you should use a drip and sprinkler irrigation system.
- Very favourable for the production of fruits and vegetables.
- Power supply since 2020 is an increase from 1.75kW/ha to 2 kW/ha.
- Easy to apply the latest and advanced farming mechanism.
- High scope of threshing, irrigation, sowing/planting, land levelling, and tillage.
- Crop residue like – feed and fodder can provide you with extra income.
- Water availability is a major issue in UP and to deal with this one may require to do land levelling and use efficient equipment for irrigation.
Starting Agritech Startups in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh from Scratch is not so easy but these two states are the most advanced in terms of acquiring or adapting to modern technologies of farming which makes it profitable and suitable state to invest for Agritech.